Trust people, to live longer

In a study of 25,270 people, it was found that those that were generally more trusting of other people and their country’s services (health-care, police, etc) lived longer lives than those that were untrusting.

The study explains this by saying that “low trust/high transaction costs increase social stress and anxiety, which may lead to longterm elevation of blood cortisol levels […] associated with an increased risk of deleterious diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.”

You might also add that extremely untrusting people tend to avoid hospitals and anything they see as being suspicious (“big-pharma controls everything!”, “The Man is out to get you!”) and tend to be more socially isolated, leading to a higher chance that any illnesses or injuries they have not being treated.

This has been added to the Good Habits section of How To Live Forever.

Cycling is good for you

While it may seem like an obvious thing, I don’t like making statements unless the evidence is actually there.

Cycling may seem such an obviously healthy thing that it goes without saying that it’s good for you. But then you hear about people being knocked down by cars, or run over by trucks, or being badly injured from falls.

A study in Denmark of people aged 50 to 65 showed that the all-cause mortality was definitely lower in those that cycled – 0.78 for people that started cycling, 0.77 for people that were consistent cyclers.

The benefit was so obviously related to the cycling that when some people in the study stopped cycling, their mortality rose back to almost the baseline, at 0.98.

In other words, cycling decreases the chance of you dying in any particular time-range by 20%, vs not cycling.

I have added this fact to the chapter on Good Habits in the book How To Live Forever.

Quantum Immortality book

The Quantum Immortality section of my book How To Live Forever takes up a lot of space, partly because of the work involved in describing the many different ways that the universe can be infinite in size and shape.

I’m considering cutting it right down to just one or two pages, because I don’t want an unproven (but compelling) idea taking up a lot of space in an otherwise proof-based book.

But, I also don’t want to just throw the work away. So, I’m thinking of expanding it into a book of its own.

There’s certainly a lot of topics around quantum immortality that could do with investigation.

Example topics:

  • What is quantum immortality?
  • How do we know it is real?
  • How can you make money through quantum immortality?
  • What about old age?
  • If you are immortal, how should you behave?
  • Is there any evidence that Quantum Immortality is true?

I’ll explore a few of these here very briefly.

What is quantum immortality?

Quantum physics suggests that there may be infinite worlds, one for every possible solution in a quantum equation. This means that for every chance that you might have died, there is also a chance that you didn’t. You can only be aware of universes where you survived, therefore your awareness is (and therefore, you are) immortal.

How do we know quantum immortality is real?

We don’t. The many worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics is just one of a few plausible interpretations. The one most commonly known is the Copenhagen interpretation (CI) which suggests that when a quantum event happens, the event magically “collapses” to choose one possible result as reality. Occam’s Razor suggests that the simplest answer is usually the most correct. CI requires the universe to somehow choose a reality. MWI does not. MWI is simpler and therefore probably correct.

How can you make money through quantum immortality?

One possibility comes to mind: create a suicide device (do not do this: this is a thought experiment) which will release an overdose of a poisonous gas during your sleep if certain numbers don’t come up in the lottery on a specific night. Buy those exact numbers on a lottery ticket for that night. Go to sleep. If you wake up the next morning, then you are now rich. Quantum Immortality suggests that there are billions of worlds where you will not wake up, but you won’t experience those.

What about old age?

The traditional thought experiment for Quantim Immortality is drastic – you are shot with a gun that is triggered based on essentially the flip of a quantum coin. When you get to an extreme age, every breath could be your last. This is random, which is exactly what Quantum Immortality takes advantage of. So in some universes, your current breath may be your last. In others, you will go on to breath at least one more time. And repeat, forever.

If you are immortal, how should you behave?

Don’t be an ass. Just because you are immortal does not mean you can treat other people as “lesser mortals”. Remember that even if they can’t kill you, you could still spend a lot of time in prison or in hospital. Quantum immortality ensures that you will survive everything that is thrown at you, but it does not ensure that it won’t hurt.

Is there any evidence that quantum immortality is true?

No. There is a lot of circumstantial evidence, but nothing hard. For example, the universe can be infinite in many ways (size, multiverse, mathematical reality, etc), quantum physics is completely consistent with the many worlds interpretation, we are currently living at a time when all diseases (and even old age) are being cured and people are getting older and older around the world. All of these increase the likelihood that you can survive anything, or at least survive long enough that the disease that might eventually kill you will be cured before it gets you.

This is all off the top of my head, written while riding a bus to work. I think I could come up with a further few questions to thrash out into full chapters

If a quantum immortality book sounds interesting and you have any questions you’d like me to explore, please comment below.

daily alcoholic drink no longer advised

Up until recently, I advised people to have a daily drink, as the research (308 people) suggested that if you have a single drink every day, the all-cause mortality was lower.

But more research has been done, pulling together results from nearly half a million people aged 18 to 85, that shows that a daily drink actually increases all-cause mortality, by a huge factor of 1.23.

Oh well – everything that seems too good to be true generally is.

I now need to adjust the good habits section of the book with this sobering (hah!) result.

Jimmy Joy and Huel prices

the last batch of Jimmy Joy that I bought a year back or so is now out of date. time to get more, so I’m looking into the latest prices of Jimmy Joy and the alternatives, in case the market has produced some new interesting companies.

first stop, Jimmy Joy, and I notice they have a new option, “personalised”, which lets you define exactly what goes into the shake. catch: you need to order 1000kg of it. I can’t help but wonder if this is a result of a question I asked them last year. Anyway – their Plenny Shake is €26 for 25 “meals” of 400kcal each. Averaging to 2000kcal per day, that’s €5.20 per day. their other offerings are more expensive, so I’m skipping onto the next.

Huel’s unflavoured/unsweetened offering is €54 for 14,000kcal. that’s €7.72 per day.

Next, we have Soylent. It’s not as obvious what you’re buying in this case. Their pouch cases contain 35 meals consisting of 7 pouches. How many calories is that? not obvious until you read the nutrition label itself. one pouch contains 2000kcal. Okay. So at $60.80 per case (€52.73), that’s €7.54 per day.

Mana is €1.57 per pouch, and each pouch contains 400kcal, so that’s €7.85 per day.

Queal is €7.50 per day. That’s for the vegan version. The non-vegan version is €7 per day, but if you’re going to go to the effort of being careful about your diet, why not also be ethical about it?

I’ll check these again in a few months again and probably revise into a formatted table and add a few more, but that covers the more commonly-known future foods.

Jimmy Joy is by far the cheapest in this comparison, at €5.20 per day for a nutritionally complete diet.

Artificial Pancreas passes clinical trials

A closed-loop insulin monitoring and delivery system has passed a 12-week randomised trial where the patients were free-living – they were not asked to stay in bed or to be careful in any way – just to live their lives as normal.

Closed-loop insulin delivery (“artificial pancreas”) systems work by monitoring insulin levels and adjusting insulin input every few minutes using an algorithm, which results in a much more glucose level than the usual method which is to measure every few hours and adjust by injection.

Using this method, insulin levels are monitored and adjusted even when the person is asleep.

A meta-review earlier this year compared artificial pancreases with other insulin management systems and found that when using an artificial pancreas, the glucose levels were near normal values significantly more than with any other treatment.

Is Gardasil Dangerous? Part 5

Today I’ll look into the statement “I also know that the ingredients L-Histidine and Polysorbate 80 piggyback the aluminium adjuvant (microsplinters) across the blood/brain barrier where they lodge permanently in the brain tissue. Those ingredients also strip the myelin coating off nerve cells and cause loss to varying degrees of nerve-cell signal transmission. This is what causes loss of sensation in the extremities reported widely.”

part 1 | part 2 | part 3 | part 4 | part 5

The first thing I did was to search and see if there are any references at all online for “adjuvant microsplinters”. I found literally zero pages that had the two words on the same page. Within a few days, I guess this article will be the only one.

Before I get started, there is a misunderstanding here – even if L-Histidine, Polysorbate 80 and the adjuvant were to get through the blood brain barrier together, it would not be the histidine and P80 piggy-backing the adjuvant. It would be the adjuvant and the histidine piggybacking the P80. Polysorbate 80 is a known “key” to the blood-brain barrier door.


I already discussed L-Histidine in general, but this statement specifically states that L-Histidine lodges permanently in brain tissue, strips myelin from nerves and causes loss of sensation. Heavy words. L-Histidine (also known as Histidine) does not do any of this.

First off, it is already in the brain. Histidine is a precuror molecule to histamine, which is a neurotransmitter. You actually need histidine in your brain for it to function.

If your brain doesn’t get histidine, this can cause anxiety.

If you increase the amount of histidine in your brain, it can actually counteract fatigue and make you more alert and quicker at thinking.

To be afraid of having L-Histidine in your brain is like being afraid of having nerves in your brain.

To say that L-Histidine can “strip the myelin off nerve cells” is actually the complete opposite of what it does! “Histidine is a semi-essential amino acid (children should obtain it from food) needed in humans for growth and tissue repair, Histidine is important for maintenance of myelin sheaths that protect nerve cells and is metabolized to the neurotransmitter histamine. Histamines play many roles in immunity, gastric secretion, and sexual functions. Histidine is also required for blood cell manufacture and protects tissues against damage caused by radiation and heavy metals.”

I found a paper from 1973 where rabbits were injected with doses varying from 62-1500 mg/kg, straight into the brain. No side-effects were noted. The histamine content of the brain rose as the histidine was converted, but there were not side-effects.

The equivalent dosages here in a 70kg human are 4.34g to 105g. Straight into the brain. With no side-effects. Gardasil only has 0.78mg of histadine. That’s 134615 times smaller than 105g. The L-Histidine in Gardasil is not dangerous, either to the body, or to the brain.

Polysorbate 80

Polysorbate 80 is also known as Tween-80 (or P80). As already discussed, it is an emulsifier that is commonly used in food. But for this article, we are looking at what effect it has on the brain.

Tween 80 can be used to help deliver drugs to the brain, as it acts kind of like someone carrying a box in through a door – you can imagine them opening the door with a hand, then pushing the door open while backing in with the box. In this case, the door is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the box is the drug payload.

The BBB’s “door” is hard to open. Even though P80 can open the door, it still takes a certain concentration of it to do so. That concentration has been measured as 3mg/kg (3mg of P80 per 1kg of body weight)

P80 causes brain-blood barrier disturbance (it opens the door) at a rate of 3mg/kg. In a 70kg human, you would need 210mg. Gardasil contains 0.05mg of P80. That’s 4200 times too small. The P80 in Gardasil is not enough to open the blood brain barrier.

But, let’s assume it somehow got through and is now in the brain itself. What effect does P80 have on the brain?

Most research into P80 and the brain has to do with whatever P80 is helping across the BBB. I could not find anything that was specifically about P80 and not its payload. Even the anti-vax websites all talked about the payload and not P80 itself. And I certainly couldn’t find anything suggesting that Polysorbate 80 had any effect at all on myelin.

Aluminium Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate

The aluminium (Al) in Gardasil is in the form Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate.

A lot of the scare stories I saw on anti-vax websites about the aluminium in Gardasil are about aluminium oxyhydroxide. Aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydrophosphate are not the same. They don’t act the same. They’re not even the same size!

Aluminium oxyhydroxide particles tend to form clumps about 0.96μm in size, while Aluminium hydrophosphate particles clump at around 1.31μm. The clumps are always globular in shape, never “microsplinter” shaped. See the images here for example.

A comparative study of the ultimate fate of aluminium-based adjuvants found that High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain”. That’s aluminium oxyhydroxide. Not hydrophosphate. They are different adjuvants.

When injections of the various adjuvants were tested, it was found that “Mass spectrometry analyses of digested tissues identified higher aluminium concentrations in the kidneys with the lowest concentration found in the brain. The dissolution of Adju-Phos® however, was found to be more rapid than that for Alhydrogel® with higher Al concentrations noted in the surrounding tissues, probably owing to the amorphous nature of the former”, and “elevated Al concentrations were found in both urine and tissue samples”. In other words, no microsplinters. The hydrophosphate form of adjuvant broken down quite quickly and was dissolved out into surrounding tissues and eventually pissed out.

A paper that I see frequently referenced on anti-vax websites is Biopersistence and Brain Translocation of Aluminum Adjuvants of Vaccines. The article mentions that Alum crystals come in mostly three forms, oxyhydroxide/hydroxyphosphate/phosphate, but writes as if they are all the same. In fact, the first three words of the paper “Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum)” mean that when he writes “alum”, he is specifically talking about the oxyhydroxide form, not the others.

The idea that aluminium can “lodge permanently in the brain tissue” is true. It’s known to happen even in the absence of vaccines. There is no single average density of aluminium to brain matter, as the amount increases with age.

Too much aluminium in the brain is linked to various conditions, such as Alzheimers (2.98 μg/g) in a case where the aluminium was accumulated over time, or death (0.97 μg/g) when it’s accumulated all at once. It has also been associated with autism (3-8 μg/g). This document has a number of other figures: “Alzheimer’s disease (up to 11.5 μg/g dry wt); dialysis encephalopathy (up to 14.1 μg/g dry wt); congophilic amyloid angiopathy (up to 23.0 μg/g dry wt); and various
aluminium-related encephalopathies (up to 47.4 μg/g dry wt).”

That last document had the phrase “piggy-back” in it, by the way, so I wonder if that’s where the idea of P80 and histidine piggybacking on Al came from? In this case, it says “Under conditions of chronic exposure to aluminium, the selectivity of the blood-brain barrier may not be seriously compromised, and aluminium will gain entry to the brain by piggy-backing upon normal transport mechanisms as well as through more indirect processes such as residual leakiness and fluid phase endocytosis”. “Chronic” is very important there.

It is also known that aluminium can help cause oxidative effects on myelin, so that part is true as well.

But how much aluminium is in the brain already, and how much does a shot of Gardasil add to that?

60 brains were donated to a study on aging. The average Al load of the brains was 1.05 μg/g. As these were all otherwise healthy (apart from the being dead bit) brains of people that died at an advanced age, 1.05 μg/g can be considered the “normal” density of aluminium to brain.

The average human brain weighs about 1.3kg. That means there is about 1.365mg of aluminium in the brain of an aged adult human.

The chemical formula for Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate is AlHO9PS-3. The relative weights of the chemicals are Al=26.981, H=1.007, Oxygen=15.999(*9), Phosphorous=30.973, Sulphur=32.059(*3), so there’s a ratio 26.981:299.129 aluminium to aluminium hydrophosphate sulfate.

There’s 225μg of Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate in Gardasil, which contains 20.29μg of aluminium.

20.29μg is 67.27 times smaller than 1.365. So even if you were to inject the entire Gardasil dose straight into the brain, you would increase the brain’s aluminium content by only 1.49%.

Of course, when you vaccinate yourself, the contents of the vaccine doesn’t just automatically go straight to the brain. It spreads through the blood-stream to the whole of the body before being mostly pissed straight out.

If you divide the weight of the brain into 70kg, you get 53.85. That means that you can expect at most 1/53.85th of the vaccine to get through the blood-brain-barrier (assuming that 100% of the vaccine that ends up knocking at the door gets in). That means the amount of aluminium in the brain goes up by even a smaller amount. Instead of increasing by 20.29μg, we increase by 0.38μg, or 0.027%.

The idea that increasing the existing aluminium load of the brain by 0.027% will suddenly cause it to strip myelin and cause loss of sensation, etc – that’s absurd.

In the next article, I’ll tackle this: “It can and does affect some people to a greater degree by stopping the autonomic nervous system from working properly, leading to respiratory and cardiac system failure and death”

Is Gardasil Dangerous? Part 4

Today I’ll tackle this statement: “the rats used during development and testing developed reproductive problems ranging from early onset menopause and ovary destruction, to total and permanent reproductive system failure.”

part 1 | part 2 | part 3 | part 4 | part 5

A report of three girls with premature ovarian insufficiency was submitted in 2014 in Australia. The document is impressive, and at first glance seems to condemn Gardasil, but the authors themselves say that the results are inconclusive for many reasons (see Conclusion section).

The document is useful to this article, though, because it details Gardasil’s preclinical trials, including the rat trials alluded to in the statement.

In the HPV fertility safety tests, there were 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats – control with phosphate-buffered saline, control with the standard Gardasil buffer, vaccine group given vaccine after mating, vaccine group given vaccine weeks before mating. The rats were given the full human dose. That is equivalent to a human receiving 200 doses at once.

The fecundity index for rats that received the vaccine weeks before mating was 95%, which is actually 2% higher than the average fecundity index for Sprague-Dawley rats, which is typically 93% (+/- 9.88%).

This means that there was no effect at all on the test rats. No “early onset menopause”, no “ovary destruction”, no “total and permanent reproductive system failure”. In fact, the rats gave birth normally, with no surprises at all.

The resulting paper, titled “Lack of effects on fertility and developmental toxicity of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Sprague-Dawley rats, stated that “There were no unscheduled deaths during the study. There was no evidence of toxicity in the F0 females given either MAA or vaccine. There were no effects on the fertility or reproductive performance of the F0 females. There was no evidence of developmental toxicity to the F1 generation, including fetal body weight and morphology, postnatal growth and development, behavior, and reproductive performance. […] These results demonstrate that this quadrivalent HPV vaccine had no detectable adverse effects in either the treated F0 female rats or the F1 generation”.

In another test, the vaccine was tested specifically on the fertility of male rats, with similar results. 30 rats were given full human doses of Gardasil. The results showed that there was no effect on either reproduction, or on life expectancy. “There were no unscheduled deaths during the study and no evidence of toxicity in vaccine-treated male rats. The vaccine induced a specific antibody response to the 4 HPV types after each injection. There were no effects on the cesarean-section parameters of females or reproductive parameters of the cohabited male rats, including histomorphology of testes and epididymis, sperm count, and sperm motility.”

Again, Gardasil is safe. It was tested at 200-times dosage in rats with no effect at all, so the statement I was given was wrong.

Tomorrow I’ll look into the statement “I also know that the ingredients L-Histidine and Polysorbate 80 piggyback the aluminium adjuvant (microsplinters) across the blood/brain barrier where they lodge permanently in the brain tissue. Those ingredients also strip the myelin coating off nerve cells and cause loss to varying degrees of nerve-cell signal transmission. This is what causes loss of sensation in the extremities reported widely.”

Is Gardasil Dangerous? Part 3

I’m still not finished looking into the ingredients of Gardisil, so let’s continue.

part 1 | part 2 | part 3 | part 4 | part 5

From the FDA: “Each 0.5-mL dose of the vaccine contains approximately 225 mcg of aluminum (as Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate adjuvant), 9.56 mg of sodium chloride, 0.78 mg of L-histidine, 50 mcg of polysorbate 80, 35 mcg of sodium borate, <7 mcg yeast protein/dose, and water for injection.“.

The remaining ingredients to look at are 35μg of sodium borate, 50μg of polysorbate 80, and water for injection. I think we can safely ignore the water…

Sodium Borate

We’ve already discussed how the individual chemicals in a compound really don’t matter all that much. Otherwise, we would all explode when we get warm, because hydrogen and oxygen are extremely flammable. Sodium borate contains sodium, oxygen, and boron. Sodium is an explosive metal, oxygen is an extremely reactive gas that can erode metal or burn right through it, and boron can be used as a fuel in aneutronic fusion reactors.

Sodium borate is also known as borax. Its most common uses are as anti-fungal treatments, fire retardents, insecticides, and as an ingredient in cosmetics and detergents.

It’s also a food additive, E285, which is banned in a few countries because when consumed in “large quantities”, it can lead to liver cancer. Large quantities. Remember that consuming salt in large quantities also has effects, and you can even die from drinking too much water. Let’s deal in hard numbers, not vagueries.

Borax is measured as having an LD50 of 2.66g/kg in rats, which is between THC (1.27g/kg) and salt (3g/kg). 2.66g/kg is the same as 186.2g/70kg, so if you’re 70kg in weight, 186.2g is 50% likely to kill you. Don’t eat 186.2g of sodium borate.

Borax is used as an insecticide with no restrictions in the US, because the EPA has found in multiple examinations that “because they are of low toxicity and occur naturally, boric acid and its sodium salts should be exempted from the requirement of a tolerance (maximum residue limit) for all raw agricultural commodities”.

It has been found to inhibit the growth of tumours, as demonstrated in this paper where the concentration of Borax was related strongly to the destruction of HepG2 cells (human liver cancer cells).

There is no measurement of what is a safe amount of sodium borate to consume in a day, but because its LD50 is so similar to salt, we can use that as a guesstimate. sodium borate’s LD50 is 0.89 times salt’s, so we can say for the purposes of this argument that the RDI is 0.89 times salt’s RDI (2.3mg per day), or 2.047mg.

Gardasil contains 0.035mg of sodium borate, which is 58.5 times smaller than 2.047mg (our calculated RDI) and 5,320,000 times smaller than 186.2g.

The amount of sodium borate in Gardasil is safe.

Polysorbate 80

Polysorbate 80 is a surfactant (lowers surface tension between liquids) and an emulsifier (a substance that “gels” things together).

Polysorbate 80 is a food additive (E433) that you will find in ice creams and deserts, wine, soups, chewing gums, food supplements, medical supplements, sauces.

A study in 2008 discovered that if you feed a pregnant rat 16.783 ml/kg/day polysorbate 80, the offspring may be smaller. That’s the equivalent in a human of eating 1.3kg of polysorbate 80 every day. If you are pregnant, don’t do that.

People eat an average of 100mg of polysorbate 80 every day.

I really can’t find anything dangerous about this stuff. I can’t find anything about anyone ever dying from eating polysorbate 80. The only recorded effect it seems to have on humans is that if you have Crohn’s disease, it might give you a tummy ache.

There’s 50μg of polysorbate 80 in Gardasil. You consume 100mg of it every day. That means you are already consuming 2000 times as much polysorbate 80 in your normal diet as you will get from Gardasil.


I was told that the ingredients in Gardasil are very scary. After researching them, I’m really struggling to find out what the fuss is. Every one of them is perfectly safe. In most cases, you already ingest much more of the ingredient in your daily life than you will get from Gardasil.

In the next article, I will look at the next portion of the post that originally started this, where I was told that “the rats used during development and testing developed reproductive problems ranging from early onset menopause and ovary destruction, to total and permanent reproductive system failure.”

UBX0101/Navitoclax update

I haven’t looked in on this in a while, but there are some interesting new developments.

UBX0101 (also known as Navitoclax, or ABT-263) is a drug that is used currently in anti-cancer treatments.

It is also a senolytic, meaning that it can be used to destroy senescent cells in the body (the cells that make you old).

When I last looked into UBX0101, no human trials had yet been done on the senolytic aspect. This year, UBX0101 became the first drug to go into human trial for specifically its senolytic aspects.

Announced in June 2018, the trial recruited sufferers of osteoarthritis of the knee.

In the trial, the patients are injected at the site of the osteoarthritis with UBX0101, which then selectively targets the senescent cells that are the cause of the complaint (through their inflammatory effect), and destroys them.

The trial is not due to complete until November (in two months), so we don’t know for sure how it’s going, but based on how the market is responding, there is really good news coming.